enteroimmunology is truly the frontier of science. Probiotics likely don’t affect asthma rates because the the GI tract is already inoculated. Children born by C-section have higher rates of asthma and allergies because the birth canal coats the newborn and its GI tract in non-harmful bacteria. Breast milk has an indigestible carbohydrate that long puzzled scientists. It was recently discovered that the carbohydrate is utilized by beneficial bacteria populating the gut, thus crowding that niche out from potential harmful bacteria.